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Dandruff, lice, ringworm, seborrheic dermatitis, scalp psoriasis, etc come under scalp problems. The causes, symptoms and treatment options vary for different scalp problems.

The most common conditions behind scalp problems are:

-Malnutrition: This causes brittle hair ,discolouration or greying ,hair loss, dandruff, etc. -Exposure to chemical ingredients in the from of dyes, chemicals, hair products etc -Endocrine abnormalities like thyroid disorders ,Hypopituitarism, PCOD , Diabetes -Pregnancy -Stress -Depression

A few skin conditions which cause scalp issues:

-Seborrheic eczema -Dermatitis -Psoriasis -Ringworm

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Scalp Symptoms

-Dry hair, hair loss , brittle hair -White flakes and patches -Redness and scalp irritation -Itchiness

Treatment

There are various alternative treatments for scalp issues like medications, surgeries, therapies etc. The most responsive treatments are listed below, but these vary according to the type of problem: Medicated shampoo & ointments recommended by the doctor (helps to remove the debris & additional sebum produced by the scalp). These shampoos contain: -Tea tree oil to eliminate bacteria -Salicylic acid to fight off dead skin cells -Glycolic acid to exfoliate the skin and eliminate bacteria and sebum. -Ketoconazole to remove patchy red skin -Ciclopirox to treat any skin infections apart from dandruff -Benzoyl peroxide to kill the bacteria

Other Treatments include

-Topical antibiotic ointments or steroid creams -Steroid injections -Oral antibiotics -Antihistamines -Phototherapy -Specific medications for severe acne It is advised that no two treatments should be used simultaneously at any point in time. It is recommended to consult a dermatologist or a trichologist first before proceeding with any treatment.

Prevention

Most of the scalp issues can be prevented by making a few changes in the lifestyle. Here are a few simple ways to avoid any scalp problems. Comb the hair frequently- Scalp issues can be caused due to not brushing the hair more often. Combing regularly helps the layer of dead skin formed on the scalp shed off easily and this prevents oily/greasy scalp & dandruff. It revives the dry/split-end strands and helps in better circulation of natural oil. Let your hair get some sunlight- To improve the health of the scalp, it is always good to provide some exposure to sunlight. It may not be an immediate cure to the problems but can help improve hair fall. Also, too much exposure to ultraviolet light can damage skin. To achieve the best outcome, an individual must spend some time in the morning sun and wear sunscreen on face & body. Change in lifestyle & diet- The lifestyle and food intake an individual maintains holds great importance when it comes to dealing with scalp issues. People who eat foods high in zinc and vitamin B are less prone to scalp diseases. Red meat, Oysters & Poultry have a huge amount of Zinc and regulate the sebum produced by the body. Even vitamin B rich foods like fish, meat, cereals & pulses break down carbohydrates, glycogen and fats easily for better metabolism. Overcome depression & stress- Depression and stress affect the brain cells negatively and also affect health in other ways. There can be a direct connection between stress and scalp issues as such lifestyle can hamper the care procedure of an individual. People under stress and depression are often observed to be more careless about their health. Exercise and a healthy diet might help to reduce the stress levels of a person. At least 2-4 hours of physical activity must be done in a week. This enables the body to produce extra endorphins and makes the body feel healthy, content and happy. Switch to a milder shampoo- This seems to be the most obvious option, mild shampoos act as a hair cleanser and keratin protector. They have fewer chemicals and they help in sustaining the moisture balance and healthy pH level. They primarily fight against the causes and conditions of the scalp, i.e. accumulation of Malassezia and the presence of flakes on the scalp.

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